OpenCellAg Repository

The repository is curated and maintained by New Harvest and other supporting partners. For more information on the field or New Harvest’s work, visit

For more information, view the New Harvest OpenCellAg Repository on Zenodo here.

This page was last updated October 24th, 2023.

Publication List

In vitro Insect Fat Cultivation for Cellular Agriculture Applications
Letcher, Sophia; Rubio, Natalie; Ashizawa, Reina; Saad, Michael; Rittenberg, Miriam; McCreary, Aidan; Ali, Adham; Calkins, Olivia; Trimmer, Barry; Kaplan, David
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Cell-cultured fat could provide important elements of flavor, nutrition, and texture to enhance the quality and therefore expand consumer adoption of alternative meat products. In contrast to cells from livestock animals, insect cells have been proposed as a relatively low-cost and scalable platform for tissue engineering and muscle cell-derived cultured meat production.

Dual-Crosslinked Alginate-Based Hydrogels with Tunable Mechanical Properties for Cultured Meat
Irfan Tahir; Rachael Floreani
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Cultured meat refers to the production of animal tissue by utilizing the same techniques as tissue engineering through cell culture. Various biomaterials have been designed to serve as in vitro supports for cell viability, growth, and migration. In this study, visible light and dual-crosslinked alginate hydrogels were designed to enable control of the physical and mechanical properties needed for the fabrication of cultured meat scaffolds...

Multi-information source Bayesian optimization of culture media for cellular agriculture
Cosenza, Zachary; Astudillo, Raul; Frazier, Peter I.; Baar, Keith; Block, David E.
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Culture media used in industrial bioprocessing and the emerging field of cellular agriculture is difficult to optimize due to the lack of rigorous mathematical models of cell growth and culture conditions, as well as the complexity of the design space. Rapid growth assays are inaccurate yet convenient, while robust measures of cell number can be time-consuming to the point of limiting experimentation. In this study, we optimized a cell culture media with 14 components using a multi-information source...

Scaffolds for Cultured Meat on the Basis of Polysaccharide Hydrogels Enriched with Plant-Based Proteins
Wollschlaeger, Jannis O.; Maatz, Robin; Albrecht, Franziska B.; Klatt, Annemarie; Heine, Simon; Blaeser, Andreas; Kluger, Petra J.
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The world population is growing and alternative ways of satisfying the increasing demand for meat are being explored, such as using animal cells for the fabrication of cultured meat. Edible biomaterials are required as supporting structures. Hence, we chose agarose...

Rotational Digital Light Processing for Edible Scaffold Fabrication
Garrett, Alexis; Jaberi, Arian; Viotto, Auston; Yang, Ruiguo; Tamayol, Ali; Malshe, Ajay; Sealy, Michael P.
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A key hurdle to overcome in the development of alternative meat-based protein is the manipulation of mechanical or mastic properties of the 3D scaffolds. These properties influence the mouth feel of the product and must be tunable to achieve a variety of meat analogous textures....

Immortalizing Cells for Human Consumption
Soice, Emily; Johnston, Jeremiah
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The need to produce immortal, food-relevant cell lines is one of the most pressing challenges of cellular agriculture, the field which seeks to produce meat and other animal products via tissue engineering and synthetic biology...

Food safety considerations and research priorities for the cultured meat and seafood industry
Ong, Kimberly J.; Johnston, Jeremiah; Datar, Isha; Sewalt, Vincent; Holmes, Dwayne; Shatkin, Jo Anne
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Cell-cultured meat and seafood offer a sustainable opportunity to meet the world's increasing demand for protein in a climate-changed world. A responsible, data-driven approach to assess and demonstrate safety of cell-cultured meat and seafood can support consumer acceptance and help fully realize the potential of these products....

Decellularized grass as a sustainable scaffold for skeletal muscle tissue engineering
Allan, Scott J.; Ellis, Marianne J.; De Bank, Paul A.
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Scaffold materials suitable for the scale-up and subsequent commercialization of tissue engineered products should ideally be cost effective and accessible. For the in vitro culture of certain adherent cells, synthetic fabrication techniques are often employed to produce micro- or nano-patterned substrates to influence cell attachment, morphology, and alignment via the mechanism of contact guidance...

Microvascular Tissue Engineering—A Review
Jernej, Vajda; Milojević, Marko; Maver, Uroš; Vihar, Boštjan
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Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have come a long way in recent decades, but the lack of functioning vasculature is still a major obstacle preventing the development of thicker, physiologically relevant tissue constructs...

Decellularized spinach: An edible scaffold for laboratory-grown meat
Jones, Jordan D.; Rebello, Alex S.; Gaudette, Glenn R.
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There is a need for an edible scaffold suitable for the growth of animal muscle. This study showed that decellularizing spinach leaves produced an edible scaffold that has a vascular network that could potentially maintain the viability of primary bovine satellite cells as they develop into meat...

Milliscale Substrate Curvature Promotes Myoblast Self-Organization and Differentiation
Connon, Che J.; Gouveia, Ricardo M.
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Biological tissues comprise complex structural environments known to influence cell behavior via multiple interdependent sensing and transduction mechanisms. Yet, and despite the predominantly nonplanar geometry of these environments, the impact of tissue-size (milliscale) curvature on cell behavior is largely overlooked or underestimated...

Biofabrication with insect cells
Rubio, Natalie R.; McCartney, Naya E.; Trimmer, Barry A.; Kaplan, David L.
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Insect cells may be preferred over mammalian cells for biofabrication because of several bioprocess benefits including tolerance to fluctuations in the external environment, low secretion of and sensitivity to toxic by-products and ease of genetic modification...

Plant-based and cell-based approaches to meat production
Rubio, Natalie R.; Xiang, Ning; Kaplan, David L.
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Here we detail the benefits and challenges of plant-based and cell-based meat alternatives with regard to production efficiency, product characteristics and impact categories...

Extracellular Heme Proteins Influence Bovine Myosatellite Cell Proliferation and the Color of Cell-Based Meat
Simsa, Robin; Yuen, John; Stout, Andrew; Rubio, Natalie R.; Fogelstrand, Per; Kaplan, David L.
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Skeletal muscle-tissue engineering can be applied to produce cell-based meat for human consumption, but growth parameters need to be optimized for efficient production and similarity to traditional meat. The addition of heme proteins to plant-based meat alternatives was recently shown to increase meat-like flavor and natural color...

Bioprocess Design Considerations for Cultured Meat Production With a Focus on the Expansion Bioreactor
Allan, Scott J.; De Bank, Paul A.; Ellis, Marianne J.
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Cultured meat, as a cellular agriculture product, utilizes tissue engineering techniques and consequently faces not only cell culture challenges but also scale-up limitations. To ensure cultured meat is financially viable, efficient bioprocess design for scale-up is required...

Cell-Based Fish: A Novel Approach to Seafood Production and an Opportunity for Cellular Agriculture
Rubio, Natalie R.; Datar, Isha; Stachura, David; Kaplan, David L.; Krueger, Kate
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Cell-based seafood—as opposed to animal-based seafood—can combine developments in biomedical engineering with modern aquaculture techniques. Biomedical engineering developments such as closed-system bioreactor production...

Scaffolds for 3D Cell Culture and Cellular Agriculture Applications Derived From Non-animal Sources
Campuzano, Santiago; Pelling, Andrew E.
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Here we present three animal-free scaffolds: decellularized plant tissue, chitin/chitosan and recombinant collagen. Decellularized plant tissue provides a wide array of structures with varying biochemical, topographical and mechanical properties...

Possibilities for Engineered Insect Tissue as a Food Source
Rubio, Natalie R.; Fish, Kyle D.; Trimmer, Barry A.; Kaplan, David L.
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The cost-effective scale-up of cellular agriculture systems requires addressing key constraints in core research areas: (1) cell sources, (2) growth media, (3) scaffolding biomaterials, and (4) bioreactor design. Here we summarize work in the area of insect cell cultures as a promising avenue to address some of these needs...

Bringing cultured meat to market: Technical, socio-political, and regulatory challenges in cellular agriculture
Stephens, Neil; Di Silvio, Lucy; Dunsford, Illtud; Ellis, Marianne; Glencross, Abigail; Sexton, Alexandra
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Cultured meat forms part of the emerging field of cellular agriculture. Still an early stage field it seeks to deliver products traditionally made through livestock rearing in novel forms that require no, or significantly reduced, animal involvement. Key examples include cultured meat, milk, egg white and leather...